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## Chapter 9

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**Chapter 9**Capital Budgeting**LEARNING OBJECTIVES**• Explain capital budgeting and differentiate between short-term and long-term budgeting decisions. • Explain the payback model and its two significant weaknesses and how the discounted payback period model addresses one of the problems. • Understand the net present value (NPV) decision model and appreciate why it is the preferred criterion for evaluating proposed investments. • Calculate the most popular capital budgeting alternative to the NPV, the internal rate of return (IRR); and explain how the modified internal rate of return (MIRR) model attempts to address the IRR’s problems. • Understand the profitability index (PI) as a modification of the NPV model. • Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of each decision model in a holistic way.**9.1 Short-Term and Long-Term Decisions**• Long-term decisions vs short-term decisions • longer time horizons, • cost larger sums of money, and • require a lot more information to be collected as part of their analysis than short-term decisions. • Capital budgeting meets all 3 criteria**9.1 Short-Term and Long-Term Decisions**Three keys things to remember about capital budgeting decisions: 1. Typically a go or no-go decision on a product, service, facility, or activity of the firm. 2. Requires sound estimates of the timing and amount of cash flow for the proposal. 3. The capital budgeting model has a predetermined accept or reject criterion.**9.2 Payback Period**• Payback period: the length of time in which an investment pays back its original cost. • Thus, its main focus is on cost recovery. • The method assumes that all cash outflows occur right at the beginning of the project’s life followed by a stream of inflows. • Also assumes that that cash inflows occur uniformly over the year. • Thus if Cost =$40,000; CF = $15,000 per year for 3 years; Payback Period is 2 .67 years.**9.2 Payback Period**• Example Payback period of a new machine: • Let’s say that the owner of Perfect Images Salon is considering the purchase of a new tanning bed. • It costs $10,000 and is likely to bring in after-tax cash inflows of $4,000 in the first year, $4,500 in the second year, $10,000 in the 3rd year, and $8,000 in the 4th year. • The firm has a policy of buying equipment only if the payback period is 2 years or less. • Calculate the payback period of the tanning bed and state whether the owner would buy it or not.**9.2 Payback Period**• The payback period method has two major flaws: 1. It ignores all cash flow after the initial cash outflow has been recovered. 2. It ignores the time value of money.**9.2 Discounted Payback Period**• Calculates the time it takes to recover the initial investment in current or discounted dollars. • Incorporates time value of money by adding up the discounted cash inflows at time 0, using the appropriate hurdle or discount rate, and then measuring the payback period. • It is still flawed in that cash flows after the payback are ignored.**9.2 Discounted Payback Period**Example 2: Calculate Discounted Payback Period Calculate the discounted payback period of the tanning bed, stated in Example 1 above, by using a discount rate of 10%.**9.3 Net Present Value (NPV)**• Discounts all the cash flows from a project back to time 0 using an appropriate discount rate, r: • A positive NPV implies that the project is adding value to the firm’s bottom line and therefore when comparing projects, the higher the NPV the better.**9.3 Net Present Value (NPV)**Example: Calculating NPV. Using the cash flows for the tanning bed given in the first example, calculate its NPV and indicate whether the investment should be undertaken or not. NPV bed= -$10,000 + $4,000/(1.10)+ $4,500/(1.10)2 + $10,000/(1.10)3+ $8,000/(1.10)4 = -$10,000 + $3,636.36 + $3,719.01 + $7,513.15+ $5,464.11 = $10,332.62 Since the NPV > 0, the tanning bed should be purchased.**9.3 Mutually Exclusive versus Independent Projects**NPV approach useful for independent as well as mutually exclusive projects. A choice between mutually exclusive projects arises when: 1. There is a need for only one project, and both projects can fulfill that need. 2. There is a scarce resource that both projects need, and by using it in one project, it is not available for the second. NPV rule considers whether or not discounted cash inflows outweigh the cash outflows emanating from a project. Higher positive NPVs would be preferred to lower NPVs. Negative NPV projects are rejected. Decision is clear-cut.**9.3 Mutually Exclusive versus Independent Projects**Example: Calculate NPV for choosing between mutually exclusive projects. The owner of Perfect Images Salon has a dilemma. She wants to start offering tanning services and has to decide between purchasing a tanning bed and a tanning booth. In either case, she figures that the cost of capital will be 10%. The relevant annual cash flows with each option are listed below: Year Tanning BedTanning Booth 0 -10,000 -12,500 1 4,000 4,400 2 4,500 4,800 3 10,000 11,000 4 8,000 9,500 Can you help her make the right decision?**9.3 Mutually Exclusive versus Independent Projects**Example: Calculate NPV for choosing between mutually exclusive projects. Since these are mutually exclusive options, the one with the higher NPV would be the best choice. NPV bed = $10,332.62 (just calculated) NPV booth = -$12,500 + $4,400/(1.10) + $4,800/(1.10)2 + $11,000/(1.10)3 + $9,500/(1.10)4 = -$12,500 + $4,000 + $3,966.94 + $8,264.46 + $6,488.63 = $10,220.03 Thus, the less expensive tanning bed with the higher NPV ($10,332.62 > $10,220.03) is the better option. What would you rather have, $10,332.62 or $10,220.03?**9.3 Unequal Lives of Projects**• Firms often have to decide between alternatives that are: • mutually exclusive, • cost different amounts, • have different useful lives, and • require replacement once their productive lives run out. In such cases, using the traditional NPV (single life analysis) as the evaluation criterion can lead to incorrect decisions, since the cash flows will change once replacement occurs.**9.3 Unequal Lives of Projects**Under the NPV approach, mutually exclusive projects with unequal lives can be analyzed by using one of the following two modified approaches: 1. Replacement Chain Method. 2. Equivalent Annual Annuity (EAA)**9.3 Unequal Lives of Projects**Example: Unequal lives. Let’s say that there are two tanning beds available, one lasts for 3 years while the other for 4 years. The owner realizes that she will have to replace either of these two beds with new ones when they are at the end of their productive life, as she plans on being in the business for a long time. Using the cash flows listed below, and a cost of capital is 10%, help the owner decide which of the two tanning beds she should choose.**9.3 Unequal Lives of Projects**Example : Unequal lives**9.3 Unequal Lives of Projects**Using the Replacement Chain method: First you need determine a point in time where both choices will be replaced at the same time… Lowest common denominator here is 12 years (note you replace the three year bed B in years 3, 6, 9, and 12 while you replace the four year bed A in years 4, 8, and 12). Hint: 3 x 4 = 12 Now assume the same cash flows for 12 years with a repetition of the prior bed continuing**9.3 Unequal Lives of Projects**We assume that the annual cash flows are the same for each replication. Total NPV beda = $10, 332.62 + $10,332.62/(1.10) 4 + $10,332.62/(1.10)8 Total NPV beda = $10,332.62 + $7,057.32 + $4,820.24 = $22,210.18 Total NPV bedb = $8,367.21 + $8,367.21/(1.10)3 + $8,367.21/(1.10)6 + $8,367.21/(1.10)9 Total NPV bedb = $8,367.21+$6,286.41+$4723.07+$3,548.51 = $22,925.20 Bed B’s NPV = $22,925.20 > Bed A’s NPV = $22,210.18 Choose Bed B**9.3 Unequal Lives of Projects**Using the EAA Method Find the annual equivalent annuity that produces the same NPV for each bed and select higher EAA EAA bed a = NPVA / (PVIFA,10%,4) = $10,332.62 / (3.1698) = $3,259.56 EAA bed b = NPV B / (PVIFA,10%,3) = $8,367.21 / (2.48685) = $3,364.58 Decision: Bed B’s EAA = $3,364.58 > Bed A’s EAA = $3,259.5 Choose Bed B**9.3 NPV: Equation and Calculator Function**• 2 ways to solve for NPV given a series of cash flows…, • We can use equation 9.1, manually solve for the present values of the cash flows, and sum them up as shown in the examples above; or • We can use a financial calculator such as the Texas Instruments Business Analyst II or TI-83 and input the necessary values using either the CF key (BA-II) or the NPV function (TI-83).**9.3 NPV: Equation and Calculator Function**Example: Solving NPV using equation/calculator A company is considering a project which costs $750,000 to start and is expected to generate after-tax cash flows as follows: If the cost of capital is 12%, calculate its NPV.**9.3 NPV: Equation and Calculator Function**TI-83 Method: We use the NPV function (available under the FINANCE mode) as follows: NPV(discount rate, CF0, {CF1,CF2,…CFn} and press the ENTER key NPV(12, -750000, {125000, 175000, 200000, 225000, 250000})ENTER Output = -71,679.597 Note: The discount rate is entered as a whole number i.e. 12 for 12% and a comma should separate each of the inputs, with a { } bracket used for cash flows 1 through n.**9.4 Internal Rate of Return**• The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate which forces the sum of all the discounted cash flows from a project to equal 0, as shown below: • The decision rule that would be applied is as follows: • If IRR > discount rate, this implies NPV > 0 so, • Accept project**9.4 Internal Rate of Return**Example : Calculating IRR with a financial calculator. Using the cash flows for the tanning bed given in priof example and simply calculate its IRR and state your decision. CF0 = -$10,000; CF1 = $4,000; CF2=$4,500; CF3 = $10,000; CF4 = $8,000 Hit IRR button and then CPT (compute) Value displayed is 44.93299% Hurdle Rate = 10%, so IRR > hurdle rate, accept project**83 inputs are as follows:**TI Using the Finance mode, select IRR function and enter the inputs as follows: }) IRR(discount rate, {CF ,CF ,CF ,CF ,CF 0 1 3 2 4 (10.0,{-10000, 4000, 4500, 10000, 8000}) IRR is 44.93299% so accept it! 9.4 Internal Rate of Return**9.4 Appropriate Discount Rate or Hurdle Rate:**• Discount rate or hurdle rate is the minimum acceptable rate of return that should be earned on a project given its riskiness. • For a firm, it would typically be its weighted average cost of capital (covered in later chapters). • Sometimes, it helps to draw an NPV profile • i.e. a graph plotting various NPVs for a range of incremental discount rates, showing at which discount rates the project would be acceptable and at which rates it would not.**9.4 NPV Profile**The point where the NPV line cuts the X-axis is the IRR of the project i.e. the discount rate at which the NPV = 0. Thus, at rates below the IRR, the project would have a positive NPV and would be acceptable and vice-versa.**9.4 Problems with the IRR**• In most cases, NPV decision = IRR decision • That is, if a project has a positive NPV, its IRR will exceed its hurdle rate, making it acceptable. Similarly, the highest NPV project will also generally have the highest IRR. • However, there are some cases when the IRR method leads to ambiguous decisions or is problematic. In particular, we can have 2 problems with the IRR approach: 1. Multiple IRRs; and 2. An unrealistic reinvestment rate assumption.**9.4 Multiple Internal Rates of Return**Projects which have non-normal cash flows (as shown below) i.e. multiple sign changes during their lives often end up with multiple IRRs.**9.4 Multiple Internal Rates of Return**• Typically happens when a project has non-normal cash flows, i.e. the cash inflows and outflows are not all clustered together i.e. all negative cash flows in early years followed by all positive cash flows later, or vice-versa. • If the cash flows have multiple sign changes during the project’s life, it can lead to multiple IRRs and therefore ambiguity as to which one is correct. • In such cases, the best thing to do is to draw an NPV profile and select the project if it has a positive NPV at our required discount rate.**9.4 Crossover NPV profiles**• A related problem arises when in the case of mutually exclusive projects we have either significant cost differences, and/or significant timing differences, leading to the NPV profiles crossing over. Notice that Project B’s IRR is higher than Project A’s IRR, making it the preferred choice based on the IRR approach. However, at discount rates lower than the crossover rate, Project A has a higher NPV than Project B, making it more acceptable since it is adding more value**9.4 Crossover NPV profiles**If the discount rate is exactly equal to the crossover rate both projects would have the same NPV. To the right of the crossover point, both methods would select Project B. The fact that at certain discount rates, we have conflicting decisions being provided by the IRR method vis-à-vis the NPV method is the problem. So, when in doubt go with the project with the highest NPV, it will always be correct.**9.4 Crossover NPV profiles**Example: Calculating the crossover rate of two projects Listed below are the cash flows associated with two mutually exclusive projects, A and B. Calculate their crossover rate. First calculate the yearly differences in the cash flows i.e. (A-B) Next, calculate the IRR of the cash flows in each column, e.g. For IRR(A-B) the IRR of the difference is the cross-over rate.**9.4 Crossover NPV profiles**IRR(10, {-3000, -4000, 2000, 7000}) 12.04% IRRA = 42.98% ; IRRB = 77.79%; IRR(A-B) = 12.04% Now, to check this calculate the NPVs of the two projects at: 0%, 10%, 12.04%, 15%, 42.98%, and 77.79%. From 0% to 12.04%, NPVA > NPVB and for I > 12.04%, NPVB > NPVA but at 12.04%, NPVA = NPVB**9.4 Reinvestment Rate**• Another problem with the IRR approach is that it inherently assumes that the cash flows are being reinvested at the IRR, which if unusually high, can be highly unrealistic. • In other words, if the IRR was calculated to be 40%, this would mean that we are implying that the cash inflows from a project are being reinvested at a rate of return of 40% throughout the remainder of the project, for the IRR to materialize.**9.4 Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)**• Despite several shortcomings, managers like to use IRR since it is expressed as a percent or return (%) rather than in dollars. • The MIRR was developed to get around the unrealistic reinvestment rate criticism of the traditional IRR • Under the MIRR, all cash outflows are assumed to be reinvested at the firm’s cost of capital or hurdle rate, which makes it more realistic. • We calculate the future value of all positive cash flows at the terminal year of the project, the present value of the cash outflows at time 0; using the firm’s hurdle rate; and then solve for the relevant rate of return that would be implied using the following equation:**9.4 Modified Internal Rate of Return**Example: Calculating MIRR. Using the cash flows given in Example 8 above, and a discount rate of 10%; calculate the MIRRs for Projects A and B. Which project should be accepted? Why?**9.4 Modified Internal Rate of Return**Project A: PV of cash outflows at time 0 = $10,000 FV of cash inflows at year 3, @ 10% = 5,000 x(1.1)2 + $7,000 x (1.1)1 + $9,000 $6,050 + $7,700 + $9,000 = $22,750 MIRRA = (22750/10000)1/3 – 1 = 31.52% Project B: PV of cash outflows at time 0 = $7,000 FV of cash inflows at year 3, @10% = $9,000 x (1.1)2 + $5,000 x (1.1)1 + $2,000 $8,470 + $5,500 + $2,000 = $15,970 MIRRB = (15970/7000)1/3 – 1 = 31.64% So, accept Project B since its MIRR is higher.**9.5 Profitability Index**• If faced with a constrained budget choose projects that give us the best “bang for our buck.” • The Profitability Index can be used to calculate the ratio of the PV of benefits (inflows) to the PV of the cost of a project as follows: • In essence, it tells us how many dollars we are getting per dollar invested.**9.5 Profitability Index (continued)**Example: PI calculation. Using the cash flows listed in our previous example, and a discount rate of 10%, calculate the PI of each project. Which one should be accepted, if they are mutually exclusive? Why? PIA= (NPV + Cost)/Cost = ($17,092.41/$10,000) = $1.71 PIB = (NPV + Cost)/Cost = ($13,816.68/$7,000) = $1.97 Choose Project B, Higher PI**9.6 Overview of Six Decision Models**• Payback period • simple and fast, but economically unsound. • ignores all cash flow after the cutoff date • ignores the time value of money. • Discounted payback period • incorporates the time value of money • still ignores cash flow after the cutoff date. 3. Net present value (NPV) • economically sound • properly ranks projects across various sizes, time horizons, and levels of risk, without exception for all independent projects.**9.6 Overview of Six Decision Models**• Internal rate of return (IRR) • provides a single measure (return), • has the potential for errors in ranking projects. • can also lead to an incorrect selection when there are two mutually exclusive projects or incorrect acceptance or rejection of a project with more than a single IRR. 5. Modified internal rate of return (MIRR) • corrects for most of, but not all, the problems of IRR and gives the solution in terms of a return. • the reinvestment rate may or may not be appropriate for the future cash flows, however. 6.Profitability index (PI) • incorporates risk and return, • but the benefits-to-cost ratio is actually just another way of expressing the NPV.